BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cow’s milk allergy

May 12 2014 Comments Off on BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cow’s milk allergy

Summary

This guideline advises on the management of patients with cow’s milk allergy. Cow’s milk allergy presents in the first year of life with estimated population prevalence between 2% and 3%. The clinical manifestations of cow’s milk allergy are very variable in type and severity making it the most difficult food allergy to diagnose. A careful age- and disease specific history with relevant allergy tests including detection of milk-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay), diagnostic elimination diet, and oral challenge will aid in diagnosis in most cases. Treatment is advice on cow’s milk avoidance and suitable substitute milks. Cow’s milk allergy often resolves. Reintroduction can be achieved by the graded exposure, either at home or supervised in hospital depending on severity, using a milk ladder. Where cow’s milk allergy persists, novel treatment options may include oral tolerance induction, although most authors do not currently recommend it for routine clinical practice. Cow’s milk allergy must be distinguished from primary lactose intolerance. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for clinicians in secondary and tertiary care. The recommendations are evidence based, but where evidence is lacking the panel of experts in the committee reached consensus. Grades of recommendation are shown throughout. The document encompasses epidemiology, natural history, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment.

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Immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

September 24 2011 Comments Off on Immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

Summary

Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects more than 20% of the population in the United Kingdom and western Europe and represents a major cause of morbidity that includes interference with usual daily activities and impairment of sleep quality. This guidance prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) is for the management of AR in patients that have failed to achieve adequate relief of symptoms despite treatment with intranasal corticosteroids and/or antihistamines. The guideline is based on evidence and is for use by both adult physicians and paediatricians practising allergy. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are indications and contraindications for immunotherapy, criteria for patient selection, the evidence for short- and long-term efficacy of subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy, and discussion on safety and the different modes of immunotherapy including, pre-seasonal and co-seasonal treatments. There are sections on children, allergen standardization, vaccines used in the United Kingdom, oral allergy syndrome, cost effectiveness of immunotherapy and practical considerations of undertaking immunotherapy including recommendations on who should undertake immunotherapy and dosing schedules. Finally, there is discussion on potential biomarkers of response to immunotherapy, the use of component-resolved diagnostics, novel approaches, alternative routes and potential areas for future research.

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Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines

April 29 2011 Comments Off on Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines

Summary

This guidance for the management of patients with hymenoptera venom allergy has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is for use by both adult physicians and pediatricians practising allergy. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic tests, natural history of hymenoptera venom allergy and guidance on undertaking venom immunotherapy (VIT). There are also separate sections on children, elevated baseline tryptase and mastocytosis and mechanisms underlying VIT. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research.

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British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology guidelines for the management of egg allergy

August 24 2010 Comments Off on British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology guidelines for the management of egg allergy

Summary

This guideline advises on the management of patients with egg allergy. Most commonly, egg allergy presents in infancy, with a prevalence of approximately 2% in children and 0.1% in adults. A clear clinical history and the detection of egg white-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay) will confirm the diagnosis in most cases. Egg avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Egg allergy often resolves and re-introduction can be achieved at home if reactions have been mild and there is no asthma. Patients with a history of severe reactions or asthma should have reintroduction guided by a specialist. All children with egg allergy should receive measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. Influenza and yellow fever vaccines should only be considered in egg-allergic patients under the guidance of an allergy specialist. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for allergists and others with a special interest in allergy. The recommendations are evidence-based but where evidence was lacking consensus was reached by the panel of specialists on the committee. The document encompasses epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and co-morbid associations.

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BSACI guidelines for the investigation of suspected anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia

January 24 2010 Comments Off on BSACI guidelines for the investigation of suspected anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia

Investigation of anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia requires an accurate record of events including information on timing of drug administration provided by the anaesthetist, as well as timed acute tryptase measurements. Referrals should be made to a centre with the experience and ability to investigate reactions to a range of drug classes/substances including neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) intravenous (i.v.) anaesthetics, antibiotics, opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), local anaesthetics, colloids, latex and other agents. About a third of cases are due to allergy to NMBAs. Therefore, investigation should be carried out in a dedicated drug allergy clinic to allow seamless investigation of all suspected drug classes as a single day-case. This will often require skin prick tests, intra-dermal testing and/or drug challenge. Investigation must cover the agents administered, but should also include most other commonly used NMBAs and i.v. anaesthetics. The outcome should be to identify the cause and a range of drugs/agents likely to be safe for future use. The allergist is responsible for a detailed report to the referring anaesthetist and to the patient’s GP as well as the surgeon/obstetrician. A shorter report should be provided to the patient, adding an allergy alert to the case notes and providing an application form for an alert-bracelet indicating the wording to be inscribed. The MHRA should be notified. Investigation of anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia should be focussed in major allergy centres with a high throughput of cases and with experience and ability as described above.We suggest this focus since there is a distinct lack of validated data for testing, thus requiring experience in interpreting tests and because of the serious consequences of diagnostic error.

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BSACI guidelines for the management of drug allergy

January 24 2009 Comments Off on BSACI guidelines for the management of drug allergy

Summary

These guidelines have been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and are intended for allergists and others with a special interest in allergy. As routine or validated tests are not available for the majority of drugs, considerable experience is required for the investigation of allergic drug reactions and to undertake specific drug challenge. A missed or incorrect diagnosis of drug allergy can have serious consequences. Therefore, investigation and management of drug allergy is best carried out in specialist centres with large patient numbers and adequate competence and resources to manage complex cases. The recommendations are evidence based but where evidence was lacking consensus was reached by the panel of specialists on the committee. The document encompasses epidemiology, risk factors, clinical patterns of drug allergy, diagnosis and treatment procedures. In order to achieve a correct diagnosis we have placed particular emphasis on obtaining an accurate clinical history and on the physical examination, as these are critical to the choice of skin tests and subsequent drug provocation.

After the diagnosis of drug allergy has been established, communication of results and patient education are vital components of overall patient management.

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BSACI guidelines for the management of rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis

February 8 2008 Comments Off on BSACI guidelines for the management of rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis

Summary

This guidance for the management of patients with rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The recommendations are based on evidence and expert opinion and are evidence graded. These guidelines are for the benefit of both adult physicians and paediatricians treating allergic conditions. Rhinosinusitis implies inflammation of the nose and sinuses which may or may not have an infective component and includes nasal polyposis. Acute rhinosinusitis lasts up to 12 weeks and resolves completely. Chronic rhinosinusitis persists over 12 weeks and may involve acute exacerbations. Rhinosinusitis is common, affecting around 15% of the population and causes significant reduction in quality of life. The diagnosis is based largely on symptoms with confirmation by nasendoscopy. Computerized tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging are abnormal in approximately one third of the population so are not recommended for routine diagnosis but should be reserved for those with acute complications, diagnostic uncertainty or failed medical therapy. Underlying conditions such as immune deficiency, Wegener’s granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, aspirin hypersensitivity and allergic fungal sinusitis may present as rhinosinusitis. There are few good quality trials in this area but the available evidence suggests that treatment is primarily medical, involving douching, corticosteroids, antibiotics, anti-leukotrienes, and anti-histamines. Endoscopic sinus surgery should be considered for complications, anatomical variations causing local obstruction, allergic fungal disease or patients who remain very symptomatic despite medical treatment. Further well conducted trials in clearly defined patient groups are needed to improve management.

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BSACI guidelines for the management of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis

January 24 2008 Comments Off on BSACI guidelines for the management of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis

This guidance for the management of patients with allergic and non-allergic rhinitis has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is for use by both adult physicians and paediatricians practicing in allergy. The recommendations are evidence graded. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC.Where evidence was lacking, consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are clinical classification of rhinitis, aetiology, diagnosis, investigations and management including subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy. There are also special sections for children, co-morbid associations and pregnancy. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research.

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BSACI guidelines for the management of chronic urticaria and angio-oedema

January 8 2007 Leave your thoughts

Special Article – Clinical and Experimental Allergy

This guidance for the management of patients with chronic urticaria and angio-oedema has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI). The guideline is based on evidence as well as on expert opinion and is aimed at both adult physicians and paediatricians practising in allergy. The recommendations are evidence graded. During the development of these guidelines, all BSACI members were included in the consultation process using a web-based system. Their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the SOCC. Where evidence was lacking a consensus was reached by the experts on the committee. Included in this guideline are clinical classification, aetiology, diagnosis, investigations, treatment guidance with special sections on children with urticaria, and the use of antihistamines in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. Finally, we have made recommendations for potential areas of future research.

 

Introduction

This guidance for the management of patients with chronic urticaria/angio-oedema is intended for use by physicians treating allergic conditions. It should be recognized that patients referred to an allergy clinic often have a different pattern of presentation (e.g. intermittent acute) from those referred elsewhere and both the patient and referring practitioners often want to know whether allergy is involved. Evidence for the recommendations was collected by electronic literature searches using these primary keywords – urticaria, angio-oedema, epidemiology of management, drugs in chronic urticaria andangio-oedema, antihistamines. Each article was reviewed for suitability by the first and last authors of this guideline. The recommendations were evidence graded at the time of preparation of these guidelines. During the development of these guidelines, all British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) members were consulted using a web-based system and their comments and suggestions were carefully considered by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC). Where evidence was lacking a consensus was reached among the expert son the committee. Conflicts of interests were recorded by the SOCC. None jeopardized unbiased guideline development.

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Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions

May 24 2002 Comments Off on Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions

Purpose of this guideline

The UK incidence of anaphylactic reactions is rising. Despite previous guidelines, there is confusion about the diagnosis, treatment, investigation and follow-up of patients who have an anaphylactic reaction.

This guideline replaces the previous guidance from the Resuscitation Council UK:

The emergency medical treatment of anaphylactic reactions for first medical responders and for community nurses (originally published July 1999, revised January 2002, May 2005).

This guideline gives:

  • An updated consensus about the recognition and treatment of anaphylactic reactions.
  • A greater focus on the treatments that a patient having an anaphylactic reaction should receive. There is less emphasis on specifying treatments according to which specific groups of healthcare providers should give them.
  • Recommendations for treatment that are simple to learn and easy to implement, and that will be appropriate for most anaphylactic reactions.

There are no randomised controlled clinical trials in humans providing unequivocal evidence for the treatment of anaphylactic reactions; moreover, such evidence is unlikely to be forthcoming in the near future. Nonetheless, there is a wealth of experience and systematic reviews of the limited evidence that can be used as a resource.

This guideline will not cover every possible scenario involving an anaphylactic reaction; the guidance has been written to be as simple as possible to enable improved teaching, learning and implementation. Improved implementation should benefit more patients who have an anaphylactic reaction.

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